Welcome to Govt Swami Atmanand College, Narayanpur

Department of Physics in Govt. S.A. PG College, Narayanpur was established in the year 2005-06 since the beginning of the college. Since its inception, the department is imparting quality education at UG level, so that the students of this region may get benefited at par with any leading national and international institutions. The main aim of thephysics department is to present the science in simplest form so as to make it interesting and attractive to the students. However to keep pace with present day demand in terms of development in teaching methods and in quality education the department is endeavoring its best to keep on upgrading infrastructural facilities and academic program.

Course Structure ( UG )

    B.Sc. Part I

        Paper I: Mechanics, Oscillations and Properties of Matter.
        Paper II: Electricity, Magnetism and Electromagnetic theory. 


   B.Sc. Part II

        Paper I: Kinetic theory, Thermodynamics and Statistical physics
        Paper II: Waves, Acoustics and Optics.


     B.Sc. Part III

       Paper I: Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics.

       Paper II: Solid State physics, Solid State devices and Electronics. 



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Laws of ,motion in a uniform field, components of velocity and acceleration in differentcoordinate system (catesian, cylindrical and spherical).Uniformly rotating frame, centripital cceleration, coriolis force and its application, motion under acentral force, Kepler’s law. Gravitational law and field. Potential due to aspherical body. System of particles, centre of equation of motion, conservationof linear and angular momentum, mass conservation of energy.




Rigid body motion, rotational motion,moment of inertia and their product, principle moments and axes.Introductory idea of Euler’s equation. Potential well and periodic oscillation,case of harmonic oscillation, differential equation and its solution, kineticand potential energy, examples of simple harmonic oscillations, springand mass system, simple and compound pendulum, torsion pendulum,bifillar oscillation, Helmholtz resonator, L C circuit, vibration of amagnet, oscillation of two masses connected by a spring.


Superpositionof two simple harmonic motion of the same frequency, Lissajous figures, casesof different frequency. Damped harmonic oscillator, power dissipation, quality factor,examples, driven harmonic oscillator, transient and study state, powerabsorption, resonance.

Note:(The emphasis here should be on the mechanical aspects and not on the detailsof the apparatus mentioned which are indicated as application of principleinvolved.)


E as anaccelerating field, electron gun, case of discharge tube, linear accelerator, Eas deflecting field – CRO sensitivity. Transverse B field, deflection, massspectrograph, curvature of tracks for energy determination, principle ofcyclotron. Mutually perpendicular E and B fields – velocity selector, itsresolution. parallel E and B fields, positive ray parabolas, discovery ofisotopes, element of mass spectrograph, principle of magnetic focusing lens.


Elasticity,small deformation, Hook’s law, elastic constant for an isotropic solid and relationsbetween them beams supported at both the ends, cantilever, torsion of cylinder,bending moment and sharing forces. Kinamatics of moving fluids, equation of continuity.Eulers equation, Bernaulli’s theorem, viscous fluids, stream line turbulent flow,Poiseulle’s law, capillary tube flow, Reynold’s number. Stoke’s law. Surfacetension and surface energy, molecular interpretation of surface tension,pressure on a curved liquid surface, wetting.


1. Berkele PhysicsVol. I

2.Unified Physics by R.P.Goyal


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Note:-Numerical problems based on the topics must be asked in each unit.


Functionof two and three variable, partial derivatives, geometrical interpretation of partialderivatives of function of two variables. Total differential of a two and three  variables. Repeated integrals of a functionof more than one variables,definition of a double and triple integral. Scalarsand vectors, dot and cross product, gradient of a scale field and itsgeometrical interpretation, divergence and curl of a vector field, linesurfaceand volume integrals, flux of a vector field. Gauss’s divergencetheorem, Green’s theorem and stokes theorem.


Coulombslaw in vacuum expressed in vector forms, calculation of E for simple distributionsof charged at rest dipole and quadrupole fields. Work done on a charge in a electrostaticfield expressed as a line integral, conservative nature of the electrostatic field.Electric potential ф, E = -Δ ф torque on a dipole in a uniform electric fieldand its energy. Flux of the electric field, Gauss’s law and its application forfinding E for symmetric charge distributions, Gaussian pillbox, fields at thesurface of a conductor screening of E field by a conductor, capacitors,electrostatic field energy, force per unit area of the surface of a conductorin an electric field, conducting sphere in a uniform electric field, pointcharge in front of a infinite conductor.


Dielectricsparallel plate capacitor with a dielectric, electric susceptibility,permittivity and dielectric constant, polarization and polarization vector,displacement vector D, molecular interpretation of Claussius – mossottiequation, Steady current, current density J, non steady currents and continuityequation, Kerchoff’s law and analysis of multiloop circuits, rise and decay ofcurrent in LR and CR circuits, decay constant, transients in LCR circuits ,ACcircuits, complex numbers and their applications in solving AC circuitsproblems, complex impedance and reactancs, series and parallel resonance, Qfactor, power consumed by an a AC circuits power factor.


6. Surface tensionof liquid by capillary rise method.

7. Surface tensionof liquid by Jaegers method.

8. “H” (Horizontalcomponent of earth) by magneto meter.

9. Specificresistance by carey fosters bridge.

10. Study ofcharging and discharging of condenser through register.

11. Moment ofinertia of unknown body by inertia table.

12. Modulus ofrigidity by Bartons apparatus.

13. Poissionsratio of rubber tube.

14. Coefficient ofviscosity by Poiseulle’s method.

15. Coefficient ofviscosity by stokes law.

16. Young’smodulus by bending of beam.

17. Variation inMagnetic Fiels along the axis of circular coil.

18. Power factorof L- R circuit.

19. Determinationof “g” by keters pendulum.

20. Modulus ofrigidity by Maxwells needle.

21.Determination of Y, η, σ by Searl’s method.

SYLLABUSFOR: (2020–2021)

                                                     B.Sc. – II, PHYSICS                                  Max.Marks-50




Thelaws of thermodynamics: The Zeroth law, first law of thermodynamics, internalenergy as a state function, reversible and irreversible change, carnot theoremand the second law of thermodynamics. Claussius theorem inequality. Entropy,Change of entropy in simple cases (i) Isothermal expansion of an ideal gas (ii)Reversible isochoric process (iii) Free adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas.Concept of entropy, Entropy of the universe. Entropy change in reversible and irreversibleprocesses, Entropy of Ideal gas. Entropy as a thermodynamic variable. S-Tdiagram, Principle of increase of entropy. The thermodynamic scale oftemperature, third law of thermodynamics, Concept of negative temperature.


Thermodynamicsfunction, Internal energy, Enthapy, Helmholtz function and Gibb’s free energy Maxwell’s thermo dynamical equations and theirapplications, TDS equations, Energy and heat capacity equations Application of Maxwell’sequation in Joule-Thomson cooling and adiabatic cooling of a system, VanderWalls gas, Clausius-Clapeyron heat equation, Black body spectrum , Stefan-Boltzmannlaw, Wien’s displacement law, Rayleigh-Jean’s, Planck’s quantum theory ofradiation.


Maxwelliendistribution of speeds in an ideal gas: Distribution of speeds and ofvelocities, experimental verification, distinction between mean, rms and mostprobable speed values. Doppler broadening of spectral lines. Transportphenomena in gases: Molecular collisions, mean free path and collision crosssections. Estimates of molecular diameter and mean free path. Transport ofmass, momentum and energy and interrelationship, dependence on temperature andpressure.

Behaviourof Real Gases: Deviation from Ideal Gas Equation. The Viral Equation. Andrew’sExperiments on CO2 Gas. Critical Constant.


Thestatistical basis of thermodynamics: Probability and thermodynamic probability,principle of equal a priori probabilities, statistical postulates. Concept ofGibb’s ensemble, accessible and inaccessible states, Concept of phase space,canonical phase space, Gamma phase space and mu phase space. Equilibrium beforetwo system in thermal contact, probability and entropy, Boltzmann entropyrelation. Boltzmann canonical distribution law and its applications, law ofequipartition of energy. Transition of quantum statistics: ‘h’ as a naturalconstant and its implications, cases of particle in a one- dimensional box andone-dimensional harmonic oscillator.


Indistinguishabilityof particles and its consequences, Bose-Einstein & Fermi-Dirac conditions,Concept of partition function, Derivation of Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einsteinand Fermi- Dirac Statistics Through Canonical partion function. Limits of B.E.and F-D statistics to M-B statistics. Application of BE statistics to blackbody radiation, Application of F-D statistics to free electrons in a metal.


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Waves,Acoustics and optics


Wavesin media: speed of transverse waves on a uniform string, speed oflongitudinalwaves in a fluid. Energy density and energy transmission in waves, typicalmeasurements, waves over fluid surfaces: gravity waves and ripples.Groupvelocity and phase velocity and their measurements, Harmonics and the qualityof sound with examples, production and detection of ultrasonic and infrasonicwaves and their application. Reflection, refraction and diffraction of sound:acoustic impedance of medium, percentage reflection and refraction at aboundary, impedance matching for

transducers,diffraction of sound, principle of a sonar system, sound ranging.


Fermat’sPrinciple of extremum path, the aplanatic point of a sphere and other

applications,Cardinal Points of an optical system, thick lens and lenscombinations,Lagrange’s equation of magnification, telescopic combinations, telephotolenses, monochromatic aberrations and their reductions, aspherical mirrors andSchmidt corrector plates, aplanatic points, oil immersion objectives, meniscuslens. Optical instruments; Entrance exit pupils, need for a multiple lenseyepiece, common types of eyepieces (Ramsdon and Hygen’s eyepieces).


Interferenceof light: The principle of superposition, two slit interference, coherencerequirement for the sources, optical path retardation, lateral shift of fringes,Rayleigh refractometer, localized fringes, thin films, Haldinger fringes: fringesof equal inclination. Michelson interferometer, its application for precisiondetermination of wavelength difference and the width of spectral lines,Twymann- green interferometer and its uses, intensity distribution in multiplebeam interference. Tolansky fringes, Febry –Perot interferometer and etalon.


Fresnelhalf period zones, zone plates, straight edge, rectilinear propagation, Fraunhofferdiffraction: diffraction at a slit, half-period zones, phasor diagram and integralcalculus methods, the intensity distribution, diffraction at a circular apertureand a circular disc, resolution of images, Rayleigh criterion, resolving powerof telescope and microscopic systems. Diffraction gratings: Diffraction at Nparallel slits, intensity distribution, plane diffraction grating, reflectiongrating and blazed gratings, concave grating and different mountings, resolvingpower of a grating and comparison with resolving power of prism and of a fabry-perot etalon. Double refraction and optical rotation: Refraction in uni-axialcrystals, phase retardation plates, double image prism, rotation of plane ofpolarization, origin of optical rotation in liquids and in crystals.


Lasersystem: Purity of a spectral line, coherence length and coherence time, spatialcoherence of a source, Einstein’s A and B coefficients, Spontaneous and inducedemissions, conditions for laser action, population inversion, types of laser:Ruby and He-Ne semiconductor lasers. Application of lasers: Application incommunication, Holography and non-linear optics (Polarization P includinghigher order terms in E and generation of harmonics).

Textand Reference Books:

1. A.K.Ghatak,“Physical optics”.

2.D.P.Khandelwal,”Opticsand aomic physics”(HimalayaPublishing House,


3. K.D. Moltev;‘Optics’ (Oxford University Press) Sears; ‘Optics’.

4. Jenkins andWhite; ‘Fundamantal of Optics’ (McGraw – Hill).

5. B.B. Laud,Laser and Non- Linear Optics (Wiley eastern 1985).

6. Smith andThomson; ‘Optics’ (John Wiley and Sons).

7.Berkely Physics courses; Vol. – III ‘Waves and oscillations’.


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Minimum 16(Sixteen) out of the following or similar experiments of equal


1. Study ofBrownian motion.

2. Study ofadiabatic expansion of a gas.

3. Study ofconversion of mechanical energy into heat.

4. Heating efficiencyof electrical kettle with varying voltage.

5. Study oftemperature dependence of total radiation.

6. Study oftemperature dependence of special density of radiation.

7. Resistancethermometry.

8. Thermo emfthermometry.

9. Conduction ofheat through poor conductors of different geometries.

10. Experimentalstudy of probability distribution for a two option system using a

      coloured dice.

11. Study ofstatistical distribution on nuclear disintegration data (GM counter

      used as a black box).

12. Speed of waveson a stretched string.

13. Studies ontorsional waves in a lumped system.

14. Study ofinterference with two coherent sources of sound.

15. Chlandi’sfigures with varying excitation and loading points.

16. Measurement ofsound intensities with different situation.

17.Characteristics of a microphone –loudspeaker system.

18. Designing andan optical viewing system.

19. Study ofmonochromatic defects of images.

20. Determiningthe principle points of a combination of lenses.

21. Study of interferenceof light (biprism of wedge film).

22. Study ofdiffraction at a straight edge or a single slit.

23. Study of F – Petalon fringes.

24. Use ofdiffraction grating and its resolving limit.

25. Resolvinglimit of a telescope system.

26. Polarization oflight by reflection; also cos – squared law.

27. Calculation ofdays between two dates of a year.

28. To check iftriangle exists and the type of the triangle.

29. To find thesum of the since and cosine series and print out the curve.

30. To solve simultaneousequations by elimination method.

31. To prepare amark list of polynomials.

32. Fitting astraight line or a simple curve to a given data.

33.Convert a given integer into binary and octal systems and vi versa

Text and ReferenceBooks:

1. D. P. Khandelwal;“Optical and Atomic Physion” (Himalaya Publishing House,

Bombay 1988).

2. D.P.Khandelwal; “A Laboratory annual for Undergraduate classes” (Vani

Publishing House,New Delhi.).

3. S. Lipsehutzand A Poe; “Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of

programming withfortran”(McGraq – Hill Book Company 1986).

4.Dixon; “Numerical analysis”.


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Referencesystem, internal frames, Galilean invariance and conservation laws, propagationof light, Michelson-Morley experiment, search for ether. Postulates for thespecial theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations, length contraction timedilation, velocity addition theorem, variation of mass –energy equivalence,particle with a zero rest, Compton effect.


 Origin of the quantum theory:failure of classical physics to explain the phenomena such as black-bodyspectrum, photoelectric effect.Wave-particle duality and uncertaintyprinciple: de Broglie’s hypothesis for matter waves: the concept off waveand group velocities, evidence for diffraction &interference of particles,experimental demonstration of mater waves. Davission and Germer’sexperiment. Cosequence of de Broglie’s concepts quantization in hydrogenatom, energies of a particle in a box, wave packets. Consequence of theuncertainty relation: gamma ray microscope, diffraction at a slit.



Quantummechanics: Schrodinger’s equation postulates of quantum mechanics, operators,expectation values, transition probabilities, application to particle in a oneand three dimensional boxes, harmonic oscillator in one dimension, reflectionat a step potential, transmission across a potential barrier. Hydrogen atom:natural occurrence of n, I and m quantum numbers the related physical quantities.


Spectraof hydrogen, deuteron and alkali atoms spectral terms, doublet fine structurescreening constants for alkali spectra for s,p,d and f states, selection rules.Discrete set of electronic energies of molecules, quantization of vibrationaland rotational energies, determination of internuclear distance, purerotational and rotation vibration spectra. Dissociation limit for the groundand other electronic states, transition rule for pure vibration and electronicvibration spectra. Raman effect, Stokes and anti-Stoke lines, complimentarycharcter of Raman and infrared spectra, experimental arrangements for Ramanspectroscopy.


 Interaction of charged particlesand neutrons with mater, working of nuclear detectors, G-M counter,proportional counter and scintillation counter, cloud chambers, spark chamber,emulsions. Structure of nuclei, basic properties deuteron binding energy, p-pand n-p scattering and general concepts of nuclear forces. Beta decay, range ofalpha particle Geiger-Nuttal law. Gamow’s explanatin of heta decay, alphadecay, continuous and discreate spectra. Nuclear reactions, channels, compoundnucleus, direct reaction (concepts). Shell model & liquid drop modal,fission and fusion (concepts), energy production in stars by p-p and carbon cycles(concepts).

Text and ReferenceBook:

1. H.S. Mani andG.K. Metha: “Introduction to Modern Physics” (Affiliated East-West

press, (1989)

2. A Beiser,“prospective of Modern Physics”

3. H.E. White,Introduction to Atomic physics.

4. Barrow,“Introduction to Molecular physics”

5. R.P.Feymann,R.B.Leighton and M Sands “the Feynann Lectures on Physics”,Vol.III

(B.I.Publications,Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai).

6. T.A.Littlefieldand N thorley, “Atomic and Nuclear Physics” (engineering Language

Book Society)

7. H.A.Enge.“Introduction to Nuclear Physics”(Addision-Wesly)

8. Eisenberg andResnik “Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei and

Particles” (JohnWiley)

9.D.P.Khandelwal. “optics and Atomic Physics” (Himalaya Publising house,Mumbai.(1988).


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Class:B.Sc. III






 Amorphous and crystalline solids,elements of symmetry, Seven System, Cubic lattices, Crystal planes, millerindices, Laue’s equation for X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s law, Bonding in solidsclassification. Cohesive energy of solid. Madelung constant, evaluation ofparameters. Specific heat of solids, classical theory (Dulongpetit’s law).Einstein and Debye theories. Vibration modes of one-dimensional monoatomiclattice, Dispersion relation, Brillouin zone.


Freeelectron model of a metal solution of one dimensional “Schrodinger equation ina constant potential. Density of states. Fermi Energy. Energy bands in solid Kroningpenny modal (without mathematical detail). Metals, insulator and semiconductors.Hall effect. Dia, Para and ferromagnetism.langevin’s theory of dia and para-magnetism.Curieweiss’s law. Qualitative description of ferromagnetism (magnetic domains)B-H.curve and Hysteresis loss.


Intrinsicsemiconductor, carrier concentration in thermal equlibrium, Fermi level,impurriy, doped semiconductor, doner and acceptor levels, Diode equation, junctionbreakdown, Depletion width and junction capacitance, abrupt junction breakdown,Tunnel diode, Zener diode. Light emitting diode, solar cell, Bipolar transistors,pnp and npn transistors, characteristics of transistors, differentconfiguration, current amplification factor, FET.


 Half and full wave rectifier,efficiency, ripple factor, Filters, Inductor filter, Tand filters, Zenerdiode, regulated power supply.Applications of Transistors. Bipolar Transistoras amplifier. Single stage and CE small signal amplifiers, Emitter follower, transistorpower amplifier, Transistor as oscillator, Wein-Bridge and Hartley oscillator.


 Introduction to computerorganization, time-sharing and multi programming systems, window baseword-processing packages, MS word. Introduction to C programming andapplication to simple problems of arranging numbers inascending/descendingorder: sorting a given data in an array, solution of simultaneous equation.


1. Introduction tosolid state physics: C.Kittel

2. solid StatePhysice : A.J.Dekker

3. ElectronicCircuits : Mottershesd

4. ElectronicCircuits : Millman and Halkinas

5. SemiconductorDevices : S.M.Sze

6.Computer Fundamental : Balaguara Swami


SYLLABUSFOR: (2020-21)

Class:B.Sc. III




MINIMUM 16(Sixteen) out of following or similar experiment of equal


1. Determinationof Planck’s constant.

2. Determinationof e/m by using Thomson’s tube.

3. Determinationof e by Millikan’s methods.

4. Study ofspectra of hydrogen and deuterium ( Rydberg constant and ratio

of masses ofelectron proton )

5. Absorptionspectrum of iodine vapour.

6. Study of alkalior alkali or earth spectra using a concave gra’s.

7. Study of Zeemaneffect for determination of Lande g-factor.

8. Analysis ofgiven band spectrum.

9. Study of Ramanspectrum using laser as an excitation source.

10. Study ofabsorption of alpha and beta rays.

11. Study ofstatistics in radioactive measurement

12. Coniometricstudy of crystal faces.

13. Determinationof dielectric constant.

14. Hysteresiscurve of transformer core.

15. Hall-probemethod for measurement of magnetic field.

16. Specificresistance and energy gap of a semiconductor.

17.Characteristics of transistor.

18.Characteristics of tunnel diode.

19. Study ofvoltage regulation system.

20. Study of aregulated power supply.

21. Study oflissajous figures using CRO.

22. Study of VTVM.

23. Study of RCand TC coupled amplifiers.

24. Study of AFand RF oscillators.

25. Find roots ofF (X)=0 by using Network-Raphson method.

26. Find roots ofF (X)=0 by using secant method.

27. Integration bySimpson rule.

28. Towers ofHanoi (Nonrecursive).

29. Finding firstfour perfect numbers.

30. Quaddraticinterpolation using Network’s forward-difference formula of

degree two.


1. B.G.Strecj,am:“solid state electronic devicesII Edition (Prentice-Hall of

India, NewDelhi,1986)

2. W.D.Stanley; “Electronic devices, circuits and applications” (Prentice

Hall, New jersey,USA 1988)

3. S.LipschutszA Poe; Schum’s Outline of theory and problems of

programming withFortran” (McGraw-hall Book Co.Singapore 1986)

4.C.Dixon; “Numerical Analysis.

Physics Department Faculties

S NoFaculty PhotoFaculty NameQualificationDepartmentDesignationMobile No
1 Mr. Bhagwan Das ChandakM.Sc. ,NetPhysicsAssistant Professor9893634512

Physics Department Photos